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Full text of "VICWRITER (1982)(Commodore)"

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Ct commodore 

v COMPUTER 



VICWRTTER 
USER GUIDE 



VIC3305- diskette 
VIC3306- cassette 



ft commodore 

COMPUTER 

Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
1200 Wilson Drive • West Chester, PA 19380 

Commodore Business Machines, Limited 
3370 Pharmacy Avenue • Agincourt, Ontario, M1W 2K4 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



This manual was prepared on a COMMODORE 8000 series computer 
system using a word processor. The files were then electronically 
transmitted into a phototypesetter and typeset by 

RANDALL TYPOGRAPHIC LTD, London W4 

without compositor intervention. The manual was printed and bound by 

CARTER LITHO, Slough 

Special thanks to Gail Wellington, Marilyn Rutley and Delia Phillips who 
helped with the preparation of this manual. 



VICFILE USER GUIDE 



COMMENTS AND ERRATA REQUEST 



TO THE READER 



To the best of our knowledge, this manual is technically and 
typographically correct at the time of going to print. However, no matter 
how fine we make the sieve for catching errors, sometimes a few slip 
through. 

If you notice any mistakes, we would be grateful if you would notify us of 
them. Comments, criticisms and suggestions are also earnestly solicited. 

Yours sincerely, 



•iUAjqvv^ 



Claire E. Dixon 

Technical Author 

COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES (UK), LTD. 

675 Ajax Avenue 

Trading Estate 

Slough, Berkshire SL1 4BG 

ENGLAND 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

COPYRIGHT— SOFTWARE PRODUCT 

This software product is copyrighted and all rights are reserved by: 

LANDSOFT 

The Courtyard 
152-154 Ewell Road 
Surbiton 
Surrey 

The distribution and sale of this product are intended for the original 
purchaser only. Lawful users of these programs are hereby licensed only to 
read these programs from the medium into the memory of a computer 
solely for the purpose of executing the programs. Duplicating for any 
other purpose, copying, selling or otherwise distributing this product is a 
violation of the law. 



COPYRIGHT — MANUAL 

This manual is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. This document may 
not, in whole or in part be copied, photocopied, reprinted, translated, 
reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form or 
reproduced in any manner without prior consent in writing from 
COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES, LTD., Software Product 
Manager. 



DISCLAIMER 

Although programs are tested by COMMODORE before release, no claim 
is made regarding the accuracy of this software. COMMODORE and its 
distributors cannot assume liability or responsibility for any loss or damage 
arising from the use of these programs. Programs are sold only on the 
basis of this understanding. Individual applications should be thoroughly 
tested before implementation. Should you require installation, 
maintenance or training, please consult your COMMODORE dealer. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

SECTION ONE -INTRODUCTION 

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO VICWRITER 1-1 

1 . 2 INTRODUCTION TO THE USER MANUAL 1-1 

1.3 AN OVERVIEW OF VICWRITER 1-2 

1.3.1 INTRODUCTION 1-2 

1.3.2 WHAT IS VICWRITER ? 1-2 

1.3.3 HOW TEXT IS STORED 1-2 

1.3.4 WHAT CAN VICWRITER DO ? 1-3 

1 .3.4. 1 Saving and Retrieving Text 1-3 

1.3.4.2 Printing Text 1-3 

1.3.4.3 Editing Text 1-3 

1.4 EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 1-3 

1.4.1 THE HARDWARE 1-3 

1.4.2 THE VICWRITER SOFTWARE 1-4 

1.5 PRECAUTIONS 1-5 

1.5.1 THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT 1-5 

1.5.2 CARE OF DISKETTES 1-5 

1.5.3 CARE OF CASSETTES 1-6 

1.6 BACKING UP INFORMATION 1-7 

1.7 GETTING STARTED 1-7 

1.7.1 CONNECTIONS 1-7 

1.7.2 TURNING ON THE COMPONENTS 1-8 

1.7.2.1 The Hardware 1-8 

1.7.2.2 Problems that may Arise 1-10 

1.7.3 THE VICWRITER SOFTWARE 1-10 

1.7.3.1 Loading from Cassette 1-10 

1.7.3.2 Loading from Diskette 1-11 

1.7.3.3 Running VICWRITER 1-11 

1.7.4 TURNING THE SYSTEM OFF 1-12 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



SECTION TWO -LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 

2.1 INTRODUCTION 2-1 

2.2 ABOUT THE EXAMPLE 2-1 

2.3 GETTING STARTED 2-1 

2.3.1 FORMATTING A BLANK DISKETTE 2-2 

2.3.2 LOADING VICWRITER 2-4 

2.3.2.1 Loading from Cassette 2-4 

2.3.2.2 Loading from Disk 2-5 

2.3.3 OPERATING VICWRITER 2-5 

2.4 CREATING A PAGE OF TEXT 2-6 

2.4.1 TYPING THE TEXT 2-7 

2.4.2 USING THE FUNCTION KEYS 2-8 

2.4.3 CHECKING THE TEXT 2-8 

2.4.4 EDITING THE TEXT 2-9 

2.4.4.1 Overwriting Text 2-10 

2.4.4.2 Inserting Text 2-10 

2.4.4.3 Deleting Text 2-11 

2.4.4.4 Inserting Lines 2-11 

2.4.4.5 Setting a Tab Position 2-11 

2.4.4.6 Copying Text 2-12 

2.4.4.7 Ending the Editing 2-13 

2.5 PRINTING THE TEXT 2-13 

2.6 SAVING THE TEXT 2-14 

2.6.1 SAVING ON CASSETTE 2-14 

2.6.2 SAVING ON DISKETTE 2-15 

2.7 CLEARING THE EDIT BUFFER 2-15 

2.8 LOADING THE TEXT 2-16 

2.8.1 LOADING TEXT FROM CASSETTE 2-16 

2.8.2 LOADING TEXT FROM DISKETTE 2-17 

2.9 VIEWING THE TEXT 2-17 

2.9.1 DELETING LINES OF TEXT 2-18 

2.10 ENDING THE SESSION 2-18 

2.11 CONCLUSION 2-19 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



SECTION THREE -THE OPERATING SECTION 

3 . 1 INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SECTION 3-1 

3.1.1 KEYBOARD MODE (O or I) 3-1 

3.1.2 SCAN/EDIT MODE (S) 3-3 

3.1.3 PRIMARY MODE (P) 3-4 

3.1.4 USING THE VICWRITER OPTIONS 3-4 

3.2 CREATING TEXT 3-5 

3.2. 1 TYPING A PAGE OF TEXT 3-6 

3.2.2 COMMANDS AVAILABLE KEYBOARD MODE. . . .3-7 

3.2.2.1 Select Sub-Mode 3-7 

3.2.2.2 Set a Tab Position 3-8 

3.2.2.3 Delete a Character 3-8 

3.2.2.4 Insert a New Line 3-8 

3.2.2.5 Clear a Line 3-8 

3.2.2.6 Shift Text to the Right 3-8 

3.2.2.7 Shift Text to the Left 3-11 

3.2.2.8 End of Text Marker 3-11 

3.2.2.9 Return to Scan/Edit Mode (S) 3-11 

3.3 EDITING EXISTING TEXT 3-11 

3.3.1 COMMANDS AVAILABLE SCAN/EDIT MODE. . .3-12 

3.3.1.1 Delete Lines of Text .3-12 

3.3.1.2 Delete a Single Line of Text (D) 3-14 

3.3.1.3 Copy a Block of Text (C) 3-14 

3.3.1.4 Move a Block of Text (M) 3-16 

3.3.1.5 Move a Line of Text 3-17 

3.3.1.6 View Memory Space (B) 3-17 

3.3.1.7 Enter Keyboard Mode (K) 3-18 

3.3.1.8 Exit to Primary Mode (X) 3-18 

3.3.2 OTHER AVAILABLE COMMANDS .3-18 

3.3.2.1 Increasing the Width of the Page 3-18 

3.3.2.2 Decreasing the Width of the Page 3-19 

3.4 PRIMARY MODE (P) 3-20 

3.4. 1 COMMANDS AVAILABLE IN PRIMARY MODE . . 3-21 

3.4. 1 . 1 Output Text to Diskette or Cassette (O) 3-21 

3.4. 1 .2 Input Text from Diskette or Cassette (I) 3-23 

3.4.1.3 Print Text 3-24 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

3.4.1.4 Clear the Edit Buffer 3-24 

3.4.1.5 Enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) 3-25 

3.4.1.6 End the Program 3-25 

3.5 DISKETTE HANDLING COMMANDS 3-25 

3.5.1 DISKETTE FORMATTING 3-25 

3.5.2 SCRATCHING DISK FILES 3-27 

APPENDIX A -KEYBOARD NOTES 
APPENDIX B- CONDITION CODES 
GLOSSARY 

INDEX 



Figure 



TABLE OF FIGURES 



1-1 THE HARDWARE CONNECTED 1-4 

1-2 THE SCREEN AT POWER UP 1-9 

1-3 THE FIRST VICWRITER SCREEN 1-12 

2-1 THE SCREEN AT POWER UP 2-2 

2-2 SCREEN DISPLAY IN SCAN/EDIT MODE 2-6 

2-3 THE COMPLETED TEXT 2-9 

3-1 THE SCREEN IN KEYBOARD MODE 3-5 

3-2 UNALIGNED NUMBERS 3-9 

3-3 NUMBERS AFTER ALIGNMENT 3-10 



INTRODUCTION 

SECTION ONE 
INTRODUCTION 

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO VICWRITER 

VICWRITER is a versatile word-processing program which allows you to 
create, store and modify text. VICWRITER can be used to write reports, 
standard letters, memos, mailing lists, in fact, any text you like. Text can 
be saved on cassette tape or diskette so that you can recall it and'print it 
out again as you require. Changes and updates can be easily made, printed 
and stored. 

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE USER MANUAL 

The VICWRITER manual caters for the first time user with no knowledge 
of VICWRITER by providing a training section to get you started. It also 
acts as a handy reference guide for the more experienced user. The manual 
is divided into three sections as outlined below: 

SECTION ONE -INTRODUCTION 

This section describes what VICWRITER is and how it works in broad 
terms. It also includes a description of the equipment required to run 
VICWRITER, a list of the precautions to be followed to prevent damage 
to your diskettes or cassette tapes and instructions on how to turn your 
system on and off safely and to load VICWRITER. 

SECTION TWO -LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 

This section is designed to train the first time user in the operation of 
VICWRITER. This is accomplished by means of a simple step-by-step 
example. 

SECTION THREE -THE OPERATING SECTION 

This section describes each command available, how it works and how to 
use it. Several examples are included. 



l-i 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



APPENDIX A -KEYBOARD NOTES 

This section describes the use of the cursor control and INST/DEL keys. 

APPENDIX B- CONDITION CODES 

A list of Condition Codes generated by VICWRITER is given, along with 
their meaning and the action to be taken when they occur. 

GLOSSARY 

This contains a list of terms used in this manual and their definitions. 



1.3 AN OVERVIEW OF VICWRITER 

1.3.1 INTRODUCTION 

This section contains an explanation, in very general terms, of how 
VICWRITER works and what it can do. Detailed descriptions of each 
function are not given here but can be found in Section 3, the Operating 
Section of this manual. 

1.3.2 WHAT IS VICWRITER ? 

VICWRITER is a WORDPROCESSOR which allows you to create, store 
and manipulate text using the VIC 20 computer system. The program 
provides several commands which you can initiate by simply typing a single 
letter and any parameters the command requires. These commands enable 
you to produce letters, reports or any text you like to your own 
specifications. No knowledge of, or experience with, computers is 
necessary for you to use VICWRITER effectively and with confidence. 

1.3.3 HOW TEXT IS STORED 

VICWRITER allows you to save any letters or reports you write on 
cassette tape or diskette so that you can look them up later and make 
changes to them or print them out. A space is allocated for your text on 
the diskette or cassette. This is called a file. You give each file a unique 
name so that you can reference it. 



1-2 



INTRODUCTION 

1.3.4 WHAT CAN VICWRITER DO ? 

1.3.4.1 Saving and Retrieving Text 

VICWRITER allows you to save the text that you create. Storage may be 
on diskette or cassette. You can recall it for reviewing, to make 
amendments where necessary or print it out. 

1.3.4.2 Printing Text 

VICWRITER allows you to print out your text permitting you to specify 
the width of margin you require on the page. You can stop the printing of 
a page whenever you like. 

1.3.4.3 Editing Text 

VICWRITER provides several commands to allow you to change text until 
it is in the form you require. The commands include inserting and deleting 
lines and characters, setting tab positions, copying and moving blocks of 
text, creating right aligned or left aligned text, clearing all text to the right 
of the cursor position on a line and checking that you have not run low on 
memory space. 

1.4 EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 

1.4.1 THE HARDWARE 

The VICWRITER program is designed to be used with a COMMODORE 
VIC 20 computer system. The elements of this system are as follows: 

1. A COMMODORE VIC 20 computer. 

2. A COMMODORE VIC 1540 Disk Drive Unit and connecting cable 
(if you have VICWRITER on diskette). 

3. A COMMODORE C2N Cassette Unit (if you have VICWRITER 
on cassette). 



1-3 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

4. A COMMODORE VIC dot matrix printer and connecting cable. 

5. A suitable television set or monitor. 

6. An 8K or 16K (RAM) VIC memory expansion cartridge. 

7. Three three-amp fused mains plugs. 

The equipment must be connected as shown in Figure 1-1. 





VIC 20 

Computer 






VIC 1530 

Cassette 

Unit 






ft 


VIC 

Graphic 


















■rs~i*f 1 


< ^^^^^&\ 


■®*( i 

VIC 1540 
Single Drive- 
Floppy Disk 


Printer 





FIGURE 1-1 THE HARDWARE CONNECTED 

1.4.2 THE VICWRITER SOFTWARE 

The VICWRITER program is supplied on a diskette or a cassette. Since 
the diskette cannot be duplicated, two copies are provided. Further 
copies, if required, may be obtained from your COMMODORE dealer. 
The VICWRITER cassette contains two copies of the program (one on 
each side). 



1-4 



INTRODUCTION 



1.5 PRECAUTIONS 

VICWRITER is easy to use and relatively foolproof. However, some 
simple precautions must be observed to protect the information in your 
system from being distorted or destroyed. 

1.5.1 THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT 

In order to gain maximum efficiency and facilitate trouble-free operation, 
your VIC 20 computer system requires a controlled working environment. 
Avoid excessive heat, smoke or dust. What is comfortable for you is also 
satisfactory for the computer. A well regulated power supply is essential as 
any sudden increase or decrease in power will adversely affect the smooth 
running of your computer. If you suspect that this is likely to occur, your 
COMMODORE dealer can analyse the problem and recommend 
solutions. 

1.5.2 CARE OF DISKETTES 

Diskettes must be handled with care. The following rules must be obeyed 
in order to protect the information stored on your diskettes: 

1 . Keep the diskette in its storage envelope whenever it is not in the 
drive unit. 

2. Store the diskette in a diskette library case or other suitable rigid 
container. 

3. NEVER leave the diskette on top of the drive unit. 

4. Keep diskettes away from magnets and magnetic fields such as 
those generated by transformers, electronic motors, loudspeakers 
and telephone bells. 

5. Do not write on the diskette jacket or label with a lead pencil or 
ball-point pen. Use a felt-tip pen or fill out the label before 
attaching it to the diskette. 



1-5 



VICWR1TER USER GUIDE 



6. Do not expose diskettes to excessive heat or sunlight. The 
recommended temperature range for the storage and use of 
diskettes is 50 to 120 degrees F. 

7. Do not touch the diskette surface or centre hole. Hold the diskette 
only on the encased area. 

8. Do not attempt to clean the diskette. Abrasion will result in the 
loss of stored information. 

9. Do not turn the drive unit on or off whilst the diskette is in place. 

10. Gently load the diskette into the drive unit. Rough handling or 
forcing may damage the centre hole. 

11. Do not remove the diskette whilst the program is loading. 

12. Never remove the diskette from the drive unit whilst the drive- 
active indicator light is lit or while the disk unit is whirring. 

13. Never bend the diskette. Always keep it flat. 

14. Do not attach notes to the diskette with a paper clip or staples. 

1.5.3 CARE OF CASSETTES 

The following rules should be obeyed in order to protect the information 
stored on your cassettes and care for your cassette unit. 

1. Keep the cassette in its box whenever it is not in the cassette unit. 

2. Keep the cassettes away from magnets and magnetic fields such as 
those generated by transformers, electric motors, loudspeakers and 
telephone bells. 

3. Do not expose cassettes to excessive heat or sunlight. The 
recommended temperature range for storage and use of cassettes is 
50 to 120 degrees F. 



1-6 



INTRODUCTION 



4. Do not touch the exposed tape as this will leave moisture and dirt 
on the tape's surface. 

5. Make sure that your cassette unit is at least three feet away from 
the television set or monitor. 

6. Keep the lid of the cassette unit closed when not in use. 

7. Periodically de-magnetise the cassette heads using a de-magnetiser. 
The heads should also be cleaned after every ten hours of playing 
time using a standard head cleaning cassette. Both these products 
are available from audio shops. 

8. Check that the cassette tape is not loose on the spools before 
inserting it into the cassette unit. Loose tape can be wound tightly 
onto the spool by inserting a pencil into one of the two holes in the 
cassette and turning it in the direction required. 



1.6 BACKING UP INFORMATION 

It is essential that at least two copies are kept of all the information you 
have stored so that you will not lose this information if a diskette or 
cassette becomes damaged. The way to do this is to save each page twice 
on separate diskettes or cassettes. 



1.7 GETTING STARTED 

This section contains a brief explanation of how to turn on the 
COMMODORE VIC 20 computer system and how to load, and then 
RUN, VICWRITER. 

1.7.1 CONNECTIONS 

The VIC 20 computer system must be connected as shown in Figure 1-1. 
Ensure that each component is switched off before connecting it to the 
mains supply. 



1-7 



VICWR1TER USER GUIDE 

1.7.2 TURNING ON THE COMPONENTS 

1.7.2.1 The Hardware 

The components of the VICWRITER system should be turned on in the 
following order: 

1. The T.V. set or monitor. 

2. The COMMODORE VIC 20 computer (first ensuring that the 8K 
or 16K (RAM) memory expansion cartridge has been inserted, label 
uppermost, in the expansion port of the VIC). 

3. The COMMODORE VIC 1540 disk drive unit (if you are using 
one). 

4. The COMMODORE VIC printer. 

The expansion port of the VIC is the large slot at the rear of the computer. 
The ON/OFF switch on the computer is of the rocker type and is located 
on the right side panel of the computer. Press the projecting half of the 
switch. After a few seconds, the screen will appear as shown in Figure 1-2. 



1-8 



INTRODUCTION 




FIGURE 1-2 THE SCREEN AT POWER UP 

The BYTES FREE message will read 19967 if you are using a 16K and 
1 1775 if using an 8K memory expansion cartridge. 

The switch on the disk drive unit is also of the rocker type and is situated 
at the rear of the unit on the right hand side. Press the projecting half of 
the switch. The two lights on the disk drive, the red drive light and the 
green power light, will both come on. After a few seconds, the red drive 
light will go off. 

The ON/OFF switch on the printer is again of the rocker type and is 
located on the left hand edge of the machine. Press the projecting half of 
the switch. The print head will move to the centre of the page and then to 
its original position. The printer need not be switched on until it is 
required. 



1-9 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

1.7.2.2 Problems that may Arise 

If any component of the system does not come on, or the screen display is 
not as shown, or the disk unit lights do not conform to the sequence 
above, turn the system off. Ensure that the cables and mains supply are 
properly connected and try again. If the trouble persists consult your 
COMMODORE VIC dealer. 

1.7.3 THE VICWRITER SOFTWARE 

VICWRITER is a program contained on diskette or cassette. The 
following two sections describe the method of loading the VICWRITER 
program. 

If you have purchased the diskette version proceed to Section 1.7.3.2. 

1.7.3.1 Loading from Cassette 

Open the cassette unit by pressing the STOP/EJECT key. Remove the 
cassette from its box and with the exposed tape towards you insert it into 
the cassette unit. Close the lid on the cassette unit. To load VICWRITER 
type: 

LOAD' 'VICWRITER' ',1,1 

or: 

LOAD"", 1,1 

and then press the RETURN key. 

VIC will ask you to: 

PRESS PLAY ON TAPE 



1-10 



INTRODUCTION 



Depress the PLA Y button and the tape will begin to move. The following 
sequence of messages will then appear: 

OK 

SEARCHING FOR VICWRITER 

FOUND VICWRITER 

LOADING 

About 5 minutes will elapse. 

Now proceed to Section 1.7.3.3. 

1.7.3.2 Loading from Diskette 

Remove the diskette from its protective sleeve. Insert the diskette into the 
drive ensuring that the label on the diskette is facing up and that the write 
protect tab is to the left. Gently push the diskette into the drive and close 
the disk drive door by pushing down the tab at the front of the door. To 
load VICWRITER type: 

LOAD"*", 8,1 

and then press the RETURN key. 

The red disk drive light will come on for a few seconds and the drive will 
whir quietly. The following sequence of messages will appear: 

SEARCHING FOR * 
LOADING 

1.7.3.3 Running VICWRITER 

When VICWRITER has been loaded, the screen will appear as shown in 
Figure 1-3. 



l-n 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 




FIGURE 1-3 THE FIRST VICWRITER SCREEN 

You are now ready to use the VICWRITER word processor. 

1.7.4 TURNING THE SYSTEM OFF 

If using the disk drive unit, first ensure that the drive unit is not whirring. 
Push the drive door inwards and then let it rise to the open position. 
Remove the diskette, place it in its protective sleeve and store it in a safe 
place. If using the cassette unit press the STOP/EJECT key to eject the 
cassette. Remove the cassette and return it to its box. 

Switch off the equipment in the reverse order from that used when turning 
on, i.e. the printer, the drive unit, the computer and finally the T.V. set or 
monitor. 

WARNING 
DO NOT TURN THE SYSTEM OFF BEFORE 
REMOVING THE DISKETTE FROM THE 
DRIVE UNIT 

1-12 



; *S*fT. ; ^ 



TRAINING 
SECTION 



'*&r&i 



'P^S^^I^: 



LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 

SECTION TWO 
LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 

2.1 INTRODUCTION 

The following section is designed to train the first time user in the 
operation of VICWRITER, by means of a step-by-step example. Not all 
the options available are incorporated into the example but enough are 
used to give you an idea of what VICWRITER can achieve. More detailed 
information about the functions is given in the Operating 
Section, Section 3. 

2.2 ABOUT THE EXAMPLE 

The example used is very easy to follow. It is important that you work 
through each stage from start to finish. Don't start in the middle. When 
you have completed it you should feel confident enough to try your own 
examples and use more of the functions available. (See the Operating 
Section.) 

2.3 GETTING STARTED 

The following operations detail how to load VICWRITER from either a 
cassette tape or a floppy disk. 

Before loading the program ensure that an 8K or 16K memory expansion 
cartridge has been inserted into the expansion port of your VIC. The 
expansion port is the large slot at the back of the VIC. NEVER insert the 
expansion cartridge with the VIC switched on. The switch to turn off the 
VIC is to the right of the keyboard and on the side. When the VIC is 
switched on, the screen appears as in Figure 2-1. 



2-1 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 




FIGURE 2-1 THE SCREEN AT POWER UP 

The bytes free message will read 19967 if you are using a 16K and 11775 if 
using an 8K memory expansion cartridge. The flashing blue square is 
called the cursor, which allows movement around the screen. If you are 
not familiar with using the cursor control keys and the INST/DEL key, 
read Appendix A before proceeding with your training. 

2.3.1 FORMATTING A BLANK DISKETTE 

If you are using the diskette version of VICWRITER and you want to save 
your pages of text on diskette you must first format a diskette. This simply 
prepares the diskette so that you can save information on it. You will need 
this blank diskette later on in the training section. 



WARNING 
THE FORMATTING OF A DISKETTE THAT 
ALREADY CONTAINS DATA WILL 
PERMANENTLY ERASE ALL OF THE DATA 
ON THE DISKETTE. 

2-2 



LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 

Remove the diskette from its sleeve and insert it into the VIC .1540 disk 
drive unit. The diskette must be inserted with the label uppermost and the 
square notch on the diskette to the left. Holding the diskette horizontally, 
gently push it into the narrow slot at the front of the drive. Once it is in its 
place flip down the tab on the drive. The tab is in the centre of the slot. 

To format the diskette type: 

OPEN15,8,15:PRINT#15,"N0:DISK1,01" 

and press the RETURN key 

The red light at the front of the disk drive unit will come on and the drive 
unit will whir for several seconds. VIC displays the message: 

READY 

If the red light does not come on check that the power is switched on (the 
green light at the front of the drive will be on) and that the disk drive is 
attached to the back of the VIC 20. Press the RUN/STOP key and re-type 
the command shown above. 

After the READY message has appeared type: 

CLOSE 15 

and press the RETURN key. 

The red light on the drive unit will come on and after about 30 seconds will 
go out and VIC displays the READY message again. Your diskette is now 
formatted, i.e. is ready to receive text created by VICWRITER. For 
further details on disk formatting refer to Section 3.5.1 of the Operating 
Section. Please note that disk formatting can only be done outside the 
VICWRITER program. 



2-3 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

2.3.2 LOADING VICWRITER 

2.3.2.1 Loading from Cassette 

Remove the cassette tape from its box and insert it into the cassette unit. 
Make sure that the cassette is rewound to the beginning. If it is not, press 
the REW key on the cassette unit. After the cassette is rewound press the 
STOP/EJECT key. 

To load VICWRITER type: 

LOAD"",l,l 

and then press the RETURN key. 

The screen displays: 

PRESS PLAY ON TAPE 

Now depress the PLA Y button on the cassette unit and the VIC displays: 

OK 

SEARCHING 
FOUND VICWRITER 
LOADING 

and briefly SEARCHING again. 

This will take about five minutes after which the first VICWRITER screen 
appears. If the load was successful, i.e. the screen appears, press the 
STOP/EJECT key on the cassette deck, remove the cassette and return it 
to its case. Now proceed to Section 2.3.3. If an error message appears (e.g. 
LOAD ERROR) press the STOP/EJECT button and, rewind the tape 
and carry out this section again. Alternatively, load the copy on the other 
side of the cassette. Now proceed to Section 2.3.3. 



2-4 



LEARNING TO USE V1CWRITER 



2.3.2.2 Loading from Disk 

Remove the diskette from its sleeve and insert it into the VIC 1540 disk 
drive unit. The diskette must be inserted with the label uppermost and the 
write protect tab on the diskette to the left. Holding the diskette 
horizontally, gently push it into the narrow slot at the front of the drive. 
Once it is in place flip down the tab on the drive. The tab is in the centre of 
the slot. 

To load VICWRITER type: 

LOAD"*",8,l 

and then press the RETURN key. 

VIC displays: 

SEARCHING FOR * 
LOADING 

This will take about 30 seconds after which the first VICWRITER screen 
appears. 

If the load was successful, flip up the tab on the slot at the front of the 
drive. The diskette will disengage and move slightly forward. Remove the 
diskette and return it to its protective sleeve. If the message LOAD 
ERROR appears instead, remove the diskette, turn the disk drive off using 
the switch at the back of the drive to the right, then turn it on again. Now 
carry out this section again. If this is unsuccessful try the backup copy of 
the diskette, if this still proves to be unsuccessful have your drive unit 
serviced. 

2.3.3 OPERATING VICWRITER 

Once the program is loaded you are ready to begin to create text. The 
screen displays: 

VICWRITER md = P 



2-5 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



on the top line and the cursor will be on the second line. The letters 'md' 
are short for mode and P is short for Primary. There are three modes and 
the commands available in each are different. (See Sections 3.2.2, 3.3.1, 
and 3.4.1.) 



2.4 CREATING A PAGE OF TEXT 

Type S60. This is displayed as S 60 on the second line. The 60 tells 
VICWRITER that you want a page width of 60 characters. The width of 
the page can be set at any value between 20 and 80 characters but 60 is a 
typical width giving average margins on your VIC printer. The default 
value is 80, i.e. if you do not specify a width it is set at the maximum. 

Now press RETURN. The screen appears as in Figure 2-2. 




FIGURE 2-2 SCREEN DISPLAY IN SCAN/EDIT MODE 



2-6 



LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 



The mode is now S which is short for Scan/Edit Mode. The line number 
001 is also displayed indicating the line on which you are typing. The white 
line at the bottom of the screen (the base line) resembles a piece of 
typewriter paper. The up-arrow (t) indicates where the next character to 
be typed will appear. 

The numbers on the lower white line indicate at which position you are 
typing. To use VICWRITER to create text you must specify K for 
keyboard, which will then allow you to use the keys like a typewriter. 
When K is typed the mode indicator changes from S to O, indicating 
Keyboard Mode. 

Now type K. A K will appear at the top left of the screen and the mode 
indicator will change to O signifying Overwrite Sub-mode. (It is called a 
sub-mode as it is part of the Keyboard Mode.) This allows you to type 
anything you like on the white line at the bottom of the screen. 

2.4.1 TYPING THE TEXT 

The keys on the VIC keyboard can be used in the same manner as those on 
a typewriter, using the SHIFT key to obtain upper-case characters. 
Throughout the following sections the abbreviation VC will be used for 
the vertical cursor key, and HC for the horizontal cursor key. Simply press 
the appropriate key once for each occurrence of the abbreviation. (See 
Appendix A for their uses.) 

Type in the following text (that which is written in italics), trying to make 
as few mistakes as possible. If you do mis-spell a word refer to Appendix A 
which will help you to correct it. Leave two spaces after a full stop and one 
space after a comma. 

VC HC HC HC HC Vicwriter is a versatile and easy to use word processing 
package. It acts just like a typewriter, but with VICWRITER it is far easier 
to correct mistakes. It comes in both disk and tape form and represents 
good value for money. 

Now press the RETURN key to create a new paragraph. 



2-7 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



HCHCHCHCNo longer will you have to sit and wonder if a word will fit 
onto a line. VICWRITER automatically puts a word onto the next line, if 
it will not fit on the current line, to make your work look neat and 
professional. 

Press RETURN to end the paragraph. 

2.4.2 USING THE FUNCTION KEYS 

The function keys are the tan keys on the right of the keyboard. 
VICWRITER enables you to use two of these keys, F5 and F7 to scan the 
page faster than by using the cursor control keys. This will save you time if 
you are at the end of a long page of text and want to go back up to the first 
line of the page. 

F5 This allows rapid vertical movement DOWN 10 lines. 

F6 This is obtained by holding the SHIFT key down and pressing F5. 

This allows rapid vertical movement UP 10 lines. 

F7 This allows rapid horizontal movement to the RIGHT 10 places. 

F8 This is obtained by holding the SHIFT key down and pressing F7. 

This allows rapid horizontal movement to the LEFT 10 places. 

2.4.3 CHECKING THE TEXT 

Move back to the top of your text by holding down the SHIFT key and 
pressing the F5 key once. It is likely that you have made a few mistakes so 
locate them now as follows. Move down to the first line of text by pressing 
the vertical cursor control key. Scan each line in turn by holding down the 
horizontal cursor control key so that each line moves past your view. 
When you reach the right margin of the page the cursor will automatically 
move down to the left margin of the next line. 

To stop and correct a word, simply take your finger off the HC key. If 
necessary, move back to the word using the shifted HC key. (See 
Appendix A for details of cursor control and editing words.) 



2-8 



LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 



Finish your scanning at the space after the full stop following the word 
'professional'. The up-arrow will be pointing at the space after the full 
stop. This is IMPORTANT to the rest of the example. The screen should 
appear as in Figure 2-3 below: 



i ' ' 



1 > 



i > 
1 - I • - . It I- ■ 

. : -.:A >.<'•.• i • • ■ 
i » . i ,. I ... t. "-( ..'}. 
. , -■> * i i < 1 I • < t • « 

I ..ii -i 1 i - • ■::. ' <( ( 

... .! 


:;. tin: 
n )• 

- »3 1 : 


= > < 
it 1 1 fiO 


„ -! 


... f . . 





FIGURE 2-3 THE COMPLETED TEXT 

2.4.4 EDITING THE TEXT 

Now that you have typed in and checked this text, you can make some 
changes. By using the F5 and F7 keys on the right of the keyboard you can 
move about the page more quickly than by using the cursor controls which 
only move one character or line at a time. 



2-9 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



2 AAA Overwriting Text 

The first alteration is on line 002. Change the word 'Vicwriter' to capital 
letters. To do this press: 

SHIFT and F5 

VC 

SHIFT and F7 (4 times) 

HC (3 times) 

so that the up-arrow is under the 'i'. 

Now press the SHIFT/LOCK key. This locks the keyboard in upper-case 
characters. Re-type the letters in the word and they change into capital 
letters. This is called overwriting as it replaces the characters with whatever 
is being entered from the keyboard. Press SHIFT/LOCK again to return 
to lower-case characters. 

2.4.4.2 Inserting Text 

Next, change the word 'acts' on the third line to the word 'behaves'. The 
new word is longer than the one it will replace, so you cannot just 
overwrite it as it will also overwrite the 'ju' in 'just'. Press the VC key and 
type beha 

Now press the CTRL key and then type ves 

The word has been inserted without overwriting the word 'just'. All the 
text on the line to the right of 'behaves' has moved along three places. 
Pressing the CTRL key in the Keyboard Mode puts the program into Sub- 
mode I for Insert. (See Section 3.2.2.1 of the Operating Section.) This 
creates a space for the character that is typed and all the text to the right of 
the cursor position will be moved along one place. 

To get back to Overwrite (O) Sub-mode you must now press the CTRL 
key again. 



2-10 



LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 



2.4.4.3 Deleting Text 

Now delete the words 'neat and' from line 009. Press the VC key 6 times 
and the HC key 8 times to position the up-arrow in the space between 
'and' and 'professional'. Now press the INST/DEL key 9 times. 

You should see the characters to the left of the cursor disappear as you 
press the INST/DEL key. The word 'professional' will move to the left to 
fill in the space. 

2.4.4.4 Inserting Lines 

The text would look better if it had a heading and it is not too late to insert 
one. Move to line 001 by using the SHIFT and F5 key together. 
Unfortunately the text starts at line 002 and there is not enough room for a 
heading. You need two extra lines before the text. If you look at the lower 
left of the keyboard you will see a key labelled with the COMMODORE 
logo. In VICWRITER this key is used to insert lines. Hold this key down 
and press the up-arrow key twice. 

The text has moved down two lines giving two extra lines on which you 
may write. Move to line 001 by pressing SHIFT and VC twice. 

2.4.4.5 Setting a Tab Position 

To accent the title it can be underlined after it is typed. It would be more 
convenient to go beneath the first letter of the heading after it is entered 
instead of going back to the beginning of the next line. To do this you 
must set a 'tab'. 

Press the RUN/STOP key. 

A blue square appears below the up-arrow (t) on the base line. This 
indicates that a tab has been set. 

Now type: 

The merits of VICWRITER 

and press RETURN 



2-11 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



The cursor will be positioned under the T' on the next line. Now press the 
' - ' key 23 times to underline the heading and press RETURN. 

The cursor again moves to the tab position. As you don't want this tab 
position again, press SHIFT and F7 twice to reach the left margin. Press 
the RUN /STOP key to reset the tab position to the extreme left. 

2.4.4.6 Copying Text 

Suppose you want the second paragraph twice. To copy text you must be 
in the Scan/Edit Mode (S), so press the CLR/HOME key and the mode 
indicator changes to S. 

Now type: 

C 

the screen displays C on the second line 

Position the cursor at the first line of the paragraph (line 008) by using the 

vertical cursor key. The line begins with 'No longer ' Press the 

RETURN key. The screen displays: 

C008; 

Now position the cursor at the end of the paragraph by pressing the VC 

key 3 times; the line (line 011) begins with 'make your ' Press the 

RETURN key. The screen displays: 

C008;011; 

Press the RETURN key again. The screen displays: 

C008;011;011 

The paragraph has been copied so that it appears below the original. A 
block may be repeated any number of times by simply moving to the new 
starting location and pressing the RETURN key again. Now press the 
CLR/HOME key to end copying. 



2-12 



LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 



2.4.4.7 Ending the Editing 

Type K to return to the Keyboard Mode (O). Move to the first blank line 
after the text (line 016) by using the VC key. 

Type # 

The # is obtained by pressing SHIFTED 3. This symbol is used to indicate 
the end of the text to the printer. 

Now press the CLR/HOME key and then type X. The mode will now be 
Primary (P) and the screen will be clear of text. The CLR/HOME key 
returns you to Scan/Edit Mode (S) and the X returns you to Primary 
Mode (P). 



2.5 PRINTING THE TEXT 

Before commencing this section ensure that you have a VIC printer 
connected to your computer and that the printer is on. (Consult the 
printer manual for instructions.) Type: 

P screen displays P 

10 screen displays P 10 

Now press the RETURN key twice. 

The printer will print the text that you have created. If nothing happens 
clear the command by pressing the CLR/HOME key and then check that 
your printer is connected. (See Section 1.4). Then type in the command 
again. 

The 10 indicates to the printer that you want a 10 character left margin 
before the text. When printing has stopped press the CLR/HOME key 
and the command will disappear. 



2-13 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

2.6 SAVING THE TEXT 

VICWRITER allows you to store your page of text on cassette tape or 
floppy disk, so that it may be retrieved for reviewing, printing or changing 
at a later date. 

2.6.1 SAVING ON CASSETTE 

Insert a blank cassette into the cassette unit. (See Section 2.3.2.1.) Type: 

screen displays O 

1 and press RETURN screen displays O 1; 
hippo screen displays O l;hippo 

Now press the RETURN key. 

This will save the text, naming it 'hippo' on the cassette. The VIC will 
display: 

PRESS RECORD AND PLAY ON TAPE 

Press down the PLA Yand REC buttons on the cassette unit ensuring that 
they are both engaged. 

VIC displays: 

OK 

SAVING hippo 

The characters > > 4 appear at the top right hand corner of the screen. 
This is a Condition Code (See Appendix B) and indicates that the save was 
successful. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. Now 
proceed to section 2.7. 



2-14 



LEARNING TO USE V1CWRITER 



2.6.2 SAVING ON DISKETTE 

Before using any diskette for the first time it must be formatted. This 
simply prepares your diskette so that you can save information on it. For 
details on how to format a diskette see Section 2.3.1. 

Insert a blank formatted floppy diskette into the disk drive unit. (See 
Section 2.3.2.2.) Type: 

O screen displays O 

8 and press RETURN screen displays O 8; 

hippo and press RETURN screen displays O 8;hippo 

This will save the text on the diskette naming it 'hippo'. The VIC displays: 

SAVING 

The characters > > 4 appear at the top right hand corner of the screen 
after a few seconds. This is a Condition Code (see Appendix B) and 
indicates that the save was successful. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear 
the Condition Code. 

2.7 CLEARING THE EDIT BUFFER 

The EDIT BUFFER is the name given to the area of memory which is used 
to store your text. Clear this area by pressing the SHIFTED C key and 
then press the RETURN key. 

WARNING 
THIS COMMAND SHOULD ALWAYS BE 
USED WITH CAUTION AS THE CONTENTS 
CANNOT BE RESTORED WITHOUT 
RETYPING UNLESS THEY HAVE BEEN 
SAVED ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE FIRST. 

Now type S60 and press RETURN. Press the VC key several times and you 
will see that you now have a blank page. This is because you have cleared 
the Edit Buffer. Type X to return to Primary Mode (P). 



2-15 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

2.8 LOADING THE TEXT 

Now recall the text which you saved. 

2.8.1 LOADING TEXT FROM CASSETTE 

REWIND the cassette before trying to load the file. When the cassette has 
been rewound, press the STOP/EJECT button. Next type: 

/ screen displays I 

1 and press RETURN screen displays I 1; 

hippo and press RETURN screen displays I l;hippo 

Make sure that you have entered the name correctly (no capital letters). 
VIC displays: 

PRESS PLAY ON TAPE 

Depress the PLA Y button. VIC displays: 

OK 

SEARCHING FOR hippo 

FOUND hippo 

LOADING 

After about 30 seconds the characters > > 4 appear at the right hand 
corner of the screen (see Appendix B) to indicate that the load is 
successful. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. 

If the Condition Code does not appear after 3 minutes or the screen does 
not display 'found', stop and rewind the tape and then press the 
STOP/EJECT button. Press the RUN/STOP key on your VIC and then 
press CLR/HOME. Now carry out this section again, making sure that 
you specify the correct name and that the tape is rewound right to the 
beginning. Now go to Section 2.9. 



2-16 



LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 



2.8.2 LOADING TEXT FROM DISKETTE 

Type: 

/ screen displays I 

8 and press RETURN screen displays I 8; 

hippo and press RETURN screen displays I 8;hippo 

Make sure that you have entered the name correctly (no capital letters). 
VIC displays: 

SEARCHING FOR hippo 
LOADING 

The characters > > 4 appear at the right hand corner of the screen to 
indicate that the load is successful. (See Appendix B.) 

If the Condition Code does not appear, or a different code appears or 
'loading' is not displayed after a few minutes press the RUN/STOP key 
and then the CLR/HOME key to clear the command. Remove the 
diskette from the drive unit first flipping up the tab on the front of the 
drive to disengage it. Turn the drive unit off using the switch on the right 
hand side of the back of the drive unit and then switch it back on again. 
Put the diskette back into the drive unit making sure you have the label 
uppermost and the square notch to the left. Press the CLR/HOME key to 
clear the Condition Code. Now start again from the beginning of this 
section. 



2.9 VIEWING THE TEXT 

Type: 

S screen displays S 
60 screen displays S 60 

Now press the RETURN key and you will be in Scan/Edit Mode. Press 
the VC key several times and you will see that your page of text is back in 
the Edit Buffer. (See Section 2.7.) 



2-17 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



2.9.1 DELETING LINES OF TEXT 

Suppose that you do not like the sentence beginning 'No longer ' on 

line 008. To delete this sentence you will have to delete this line and half of 
the next line. To delete the first line move down to line 008 using the VC 
key. Type: 

D and press RETURN screen displays D 008; 

Now press RETURN again and the line will be deleted. The screen 
displays: 

D 008;008 

Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the command. 

Now delete the remainder of the sentence by pressing the HC key 16 times 
and then press K to enter Keyboard Mode (O). You need to be in Sub- 
mode (I) to delete characters so press the CTRL key. Next press the 
INST/DEL key 16 times so that the V is at the left boundary of the page. 
To re-align the paragraph you must insert spaces. To do this press the 
space bar twice. Press the CLR/HOME key to return to Scan/Edit Mode. 



2.10 ENDING THE SESSION 

Type X to return to Primary Mode (P) 

Pressing SHIFTED E will terminate the program and the VIC will have a 
screen display as at power up indicating that you are back in VIC BASIC. 
This command will clear the program and any text held in the Edit Buffer. 
Therefore it should be used with CAUTION. 

Now hold down the SHIFT key and press the E key. 



2-18 



LEARNING TO USE VICWRITER 



2.11 CONCLUSION 

Now that you have completed the Training Section you should have a 
good idea of how VICWRITER works. More detailed information on the 
commands available can be found in the Operating Section, together with 
some commands you have not yet used, such as right and left alignment of 
text, clearing text to the right of the up-arrow and moving blocks of text. 
You can now use the program to create your own letters and reports and 
with a little practise you will soon be an expert at using VICWRITER. 



NOTES 



2-19 



OPERATING 
SECTION 



THE OPERATING SECTION 

SECTION THREE 
THE OPERATING SECTION 

3.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE OPERATING 
SECTION 

The following is designed as a reference section which can be used in the 
day-to-day operation of VICWRITER to find answers to questions as they 
arise. 

VICWRITER uses 3 modes - PRIMARY (P), SCAN/EDIT (S) and 
KEYBOARD (K), the latter has two sub-options O or I. The initial letter 
of each mode is always displayed on the top line of the screen and indicates 
what commands are available to you at that level. 

When you have loaded the program (see Section 2.3.2) VICWRITER 
displays the following: 

VICWRITER md = P 

The letters 'md' are the abbreviation for mode. 

The following three sections explain each mode and the commands that 
are available within that mode. References are given to the more detailed 
instructions in Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5. 

3.1.1 K- KEYBOARD MODE (O or I) 

Keyboard Mode is indicated by a K on line two of the screen. It allows you 
to type in text from the keyboard which is then stored by the program in 
the Edit Buffer. This is an area of memory which is used to retain any text 
created or recalled from diskette or cassette. The Keyboard Mode has two 
sub modes, I and O. The status is usually O for OVERWRITE, which 
means that any characters you type will replace the original characters. 
Keyboard Mode also allows you to insert characters (see Section 3.2.2.1) 
using the INSERT (I) sub-mode. 



3-1 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



In addition to allowing you to type in text, Keyboard Mode has the 
following options to help you to modify your text: 

Set a Tab Position 

VICWRITER will automatically begin each line of text at position 1, i.e. 
the extreme left margin of the page. This position may be changed using 
VICWRITER's tab option. See Section 3.2.2.2. 

Delete a Character 

Removes one character at a time from the text. See Section 3.2.2.3. 

Insert a Character 

Causes all characters to the right of the position indicated by the up-arrow 
to move one place to the right as each new character is typed. See Section 
3.2.2.1. 

Insert a Line 

Creates a blank line on which you can then type. See section 3.2.2.4. 

Clear a Line 

Deletes all text from the right of the up-arrow to the end of the line. See 
Section 3.2.2.5. 

Shift Text to the Right 

Moves characters to a new position to the right of the original. See Section 
3.2.2.6. 

Shift Text to the Left 

Moves characters to a new position to the left of the original. See Section 
3.2.2.7. 

Set End of Text Marker # 

Indicates to the printer when to stop printing. See Section 3.2.2.8. 

Enter Scan/Edit Mode 

Exits from the Keyboard Mode so that you can use the commands 
available in Scan/Edit Mode. See Section 3.2.2.9. 



3-2 



THE OPERATING SECTION 



3.1.2 S- SCAN/EDIT MODE 

This mode allows you to modify text which already exists in the computer. 
It includes 6 options which are initiated by typing a letter followed by any 
parameters necessary to carry out the command. A brief description of 
each option follows: 

Delete (D) 

Removes a line or several consecutive lines of text. See Section 3.3.1.1. 

Copy (C) 

Duplicates a block of text. A block may be repeated any number of times, 

memory space allowing. See Section 3.3.1.3. 

Move (M) 

Moves a block of text from one place to another, deleting the original 

block. See Section 3.3.1.4. 

View Memory Space (B) 

Checks that you are not running short of memory space for your text. See 

Section 3.3.1.6. 

Enter Keyboard Mode (K) 

Changes from Scan/Edit to Keyboard Mode. See Section 3.3.1.7. 

Exit Command (X) 

Leaves Scan/Edit Mode so you can use the commands available in 

Primary Mode. See Section 3.3.1.8. 



3-3 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



3.1.3 P- PRIMARY MODE 

This mode allows you to save, recall or print the text after it has been 
created. You cannot create or modify text in this mode. (See Section 3.4.) 
The commands within Primary Mode are as follows: 

Output (O) 

Stores your page of text on diskette or cassette for future use. See Section 

3.4.1.1. 

Input (I) 

Recalls previously saved pages of text from diskette or cassette. See 

Section 3.4.1.2. 

Print (P) 

Prints the text currently in the Edit Buffer. See Section 3.4.1.3. 

Clear (C) 

Empties the Edit Buffer of all text, thus allowing you to type in a new 

page. See Section 3.4.1.4. 

Enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) 

Exits Primary Mode and enters Scan/Edit Mode so that you can use the 

commands available in that mode. This command also enables you to set 

the required width of the page in the range 20 to 80 characters. See Section 

3.4.1.5. 

End Program (E) 

This command should be used with caution as it terminates the program 
and clears it from memory. Any text held in the Edit Buffer will be lost 
unless it has been stored on cassette or diskette before the command is 
used. See Section 3.4.1.6. 

3.1.4 USING THE VICWRITER OPTIONS 

The sections above contained brief descriptions of all VICWRITER 
options. The following sections contain detailed instructions for operating 
each command. They are structured logically so that you can create your 
text, then edit it and finally print it out and/or save it. 



3-4 



THE OPERATING SECTION 



3.2 CREATING TEXT 

This section contains all the options available in Keyboard Mode to help 
you create and edit your text. When text is stored within the computer it is 
in an area that is called the Edit Buffer. This is the area of memory which 
is used to store any text created using VICWRITER. Keyboard Mode is 
indicated by a K on line two of the screen. Before creating text and 
entering Keyboard Mode you must first specify the page width required in 
Primary Mode. Press S and then enter a number from 20 to 80 (sixty is 
common) and press the RETURN key. Then type K. The screen will 
appear as shown in Figure 3-1. 




FIGURE 3-1 THE SCREEN IN KEYBOARD MODE 



3-5 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



You can now type anything you like on the screen using the keys as you 
would on a typewriter. The O on line one stands for overwrite and this 
indicates that any character you type will overwrite the character 
positioned above the up-arrow on the blue line. When you are first typing 
this is a space or blank. The up-arrow acts as the cursor indicating where 
the next character you type will appear. Text can only be entered or 
altered when it is on the line above the blue line. The blue line is known as 
the base line. 

The numbers on the lower white line indicate at which position you are 
typing. Each number represents 10 character positions along the page. The 
numbers will range from 1 to 8 (for a maximum page width of 80 
characters) so that if you specify a page width of 60 characters the 
rightmost number will be 6. Each block of 10 is subdivided into 10 
characters, indicated by a dash, with the fifth character of each block of 
10 being a plus sign to indicate the half way point. 

The cursor control keys at the lower right of the keyboard can be used to 
move about the page and the two function keys F5 and F7 can be used for 
faster vertical or horizontal movement. (See Section 2.4.2 for instructions 
on how to use the function keys and Appendix A for information on the 
cursor keys.) 

When you move down a new page using the vertical cursor key, a question 
mark appears to the left of the white base line. This indicates that the 
current line is the bottom of the page. If you then move back up the page 
using the SHIFTED vertical cursor key the question mark will disappear. 

3.2.1 TYPING A PAGE OF TEXT 

To create a page of text using the cursor keys (see Appendix A) move to 
the place where you want your first words positioned. You can then type 
the text using the keys as you would on a typewriter. Do not move to the 
next line when you reach the end of the first line, just continue typing. If 
the last word on the line is too long to fit on that line VICWRITER will 
automatically transfer the whole of the word to the next line. 

When you come to the end of a paragraph, press the RETURN key and 
VICWRITER will move down to the next line so that you can start your 
next paragraph. 



3-6 



THE OPERATING SECTION 



3.2.2 COMMANDS AVAILABLE IN KEYBOARD MODE 

CTRL Select sub-mode 

STOP Set tab position 

DEL Delete a character 

CBM (f) Insert a new line 

CBM (-) Clear a line 

CBM > Shift text to the right 

CBM < Shift text to the left 

# End of text marker 

CLR Return to Scan/Edit Mode (S) 

Note: CBM refers to the COMMODORE logo key on the lower left of the 
keyboard. 

3.2.2.1 Select Sub-Mode 

When you enter the Keyboard Mode you will be in the O Sub-mode 
(OVERWRITE). Text typed in this mode will replace the characters on the 
baseline. 

Pressing the CTRL key on the left of the keyboard activates the I Sub- 
mode (INSERT). In this mode, space will be made for characters being 
typed, i.e. all text to the right of the cursor position will be moved along. 
If inserting causes the rightmost word to be too long for the current line, 
VICWRITER will transfer the word to the line below and move all the 
characters on the next line to the right to compensate. This allows you to 
insert words, lines or whole paragraphs without having to re-type any of 
the text. To return to Overwrite (O) Sub-mode press the CTRL key again. 

The Insert Sub-mode also effects the operation of the DEL key. When 
using the DEL key in the Insert Sub-mode, VICWRITER will not only 
close up the words on that line but it will also bring, up words from the 
following lines thus closing up the spaces in the text completely. 



3-7 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



3.2.2.2 Set a Tab Position 



When you enter the Keyboard Mode (O), the tab is set on the extreme left 
boundary. By moving the up-arrow position and pressing the RUN/STOP 
key a new tab position can be set. A blue block will appear on the line 
below the base line indicating the tab position. Only one tab position can 
be set at a time. When entering text, exceeding the right boundary or 
pressing the RETURN key will move the cursor to the tab position. The 
tab position in effect becomes a temporary new left margin location. To 
remove the tab, position the line so that the up-arrow is at the extreme left 
boundary and press the RUN/STOP key. 

3.2.2.3 Delete a Character 

Pressing the INST/DEL key will remove the character to the left of the 
current cursor position and close up the words on that line to occupy the 
space of the deleted character. In the Insert Sub-mode (see Section 
3.2.2.1), the INST/DEL key will also bring up the words from the 
following lines and so close up the spaces in the text completely. In the O 
mode this will not occur. 

3.2.2.4 Insert a New Line 

Pressing the COMMODORE logo key and the I key together will insert a 
blank line at the base line position. If the keys are held down there is a 
repeat action, i.e. blank lines are inserted until the keys are released. 

3.2.2.5 Clear a Line 

Pressing the COMMODORE logo key and the left arrow (-) key situated 
at the top left of the keyboard will delete the text that is on the base line to 
the right of the up-arrow. 

3.2.2.6 Shift Text to the Right 

Pressing the CBM key and the > key moves the text on the base line to the 
right of the tab position so that the rightmost character of the text is at the 
position of the up-arrow. This is done by removing all trailing blanks and 
inserting leading blanks and is useful for aligning, for example, columns of 
figures. 



3-8 



THE OPERATING SECTION 



NOTE 

The tab position must be to the left of the cursor 
position. You must set the tab prior to aligning the 
text. (See Section 3.2.2.2.) 

Example: You have a list of figures of varying lengths, all starting in 
column one as shown in Figure 3-2. 




FIGURE 3-2 UNALIGNED NUMBERS 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



You wish to align them so that all the rightmost characters are in line. Set 
the tab for column one by moving the cursor to the left margin and 
pressing the RUN /STOP key. Move the cursor 15 positions to the right 
using the horizontal cursor key. Now move up the screen to the first 
number you wish to align, using the shifted vertical cursor key. Hold down 
the COMMODORE logo key and press the > key. The number will move 
across so that the first digit is in the cursor position. Now move down to 
the next line by pressing the vertical cursor key. Press the logo key and the 
> key together and the second number will move across to the cursor 
position. Repeat this procedure for each number. The screen will appear 
as shown in Figure 3-3. 




FIGURE 3-3 NUMBERS AFTER ALIGNMENT 



3-10 



THE OPERATING SECTION 



3.2.2.7 Shift Text to the Left 

Pressing the Commodore logo key and < key together moves the text on 
the base line which is before the up-arrow back to the left so that the 
leftmost character is at the position of the tab marker. All leading blanks 
are removed and trailing blanks are inserted. This is useful for aligning text 
to form a table, for example columns of names, and for repositioning rows 
of text which are already aligned but are in the wrong position. 

NOTE 

The tab position must be to the left of the cursor 
position and, unless you require the text to be 
moved to the left margin of the page (column one), 
must be set before aligning the text. 

3.2.2.8 End of Text Marker 

A # entered in column one (i.e. the extreme left margin of the page) of a 
BLANK LINE is used to indicate the end of the text. The printer will stop 
when it sees this character. Any text following the # will NOT be printed 
(see Section 3.4.1.3 for printing instructions) until you press RETURN 
again. Using this character will help you to set out your pages on the line 
printer. 

3.2.2.9 Return to Scan/Edit Mode (S) 

Pressing the CLR/HOME key will exit from the Keyboard Mode (O) and 
return you to the Scan/Edit Mode (S). 



3.3 EDITING EXISTING TEXT 

This section contains detailed information on using the commands 
available in Scan/Edit Mode to modify existing text, check on the memory 
space left for storing the text and increase or decrease the paragraph 
width. Commands typed in this mode are displayed on line two of the 
screen. To clear a command at any time simply press the CLR/HOME 
key. 



3-11 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



If an illegal operation is attempted, Condition Code 3 (see Appendix B) 
will appear in the top right hand corner. This message can be cleared by 
pressing the CLR/HOME key. 

To enter Scan/Edit Mode from Primary Mode type S. You must then 
specify the width of the page you require. If no page width is specified, i.e. 
after typing S you press the RETURN key, VICWRITER will 
automatically set the page at 80 characters wide. If you attempt to set a 
page width outside the 20 and 80 characters restriction, Condition Code 3 
will be displayed at the top right corner of the screen. To clear this you 
must press the CLR/HOME key and then re-enter the command. 

To create a page width of 60 characters (which is about standard): 

Press S screen shows S on line two. 
Type 60 and then press RETURN. 

To enter Scan/Edit Mode from Keyboard Mode press the CLR/HOME 
key. 

3.3.1 COMMANDS AVAILABLE IN SCAN/EDIT MODE 

D Delete lines of text 

C Copy a block of text 

M Move a block of text 

B View memory space 

K Enter Keyboard Mode (O) 

X Exit to Primary Mode (P) 

Two other facilities are included in this section although they are not used 
solely in Scan/Edit Mode. These enable you to change the width of a 
paragraph after it has been set up. 

3.3.1.1 Delete Lines of Text 

This command deletes consecutive lines of text between two cursor 
positions. To DELETE a block of text: 

Type D screen displays D on line two of the screen. 



3-12 



THE OPERATING SECTION 

Position the cursor so that the first line of the text to be deleted is on the 
base line using the cursor control keys. 

Press RETURN screen displays D line no; 

Position the cursor, using the cursor control keys, so that the last line of 
the text to be deleted is on the base line. 

Press RETURN screen displays D line no;line no 

All the text between these lines will then be deleted. 

NOTE 
DO NOT enter the line numbers. Positioning the 
text and pressing RETURN automatically does 
this. The first line number must be less than the 
second line number otherwise Condition Code 3 is 
displayed in the top right hand corner of the 
screen. To clear the message, press the 
CLR/HOME key. Repeat the block specification 
in the correct order. 

For example, you wish to delete some text beginning at line 7 and ending at 
line 12: 

Press D screen displays D on line two 

Position the cursor on line 7 using the cursor control keys 

Press RETURN screen displays D 007; 

Position the cursor on line 12 using the cursor control keys 

Press RETURN screen displays D 007;012 

All the text within and including lines 7 and 12 is deleted. 

Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the command. 



3-13 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

3.3.1.2 Delete a Single Line of Text (D) 

Type D 

Position the page so that the line you wish to delete is on the base line. 

Press the RETURN key twice. 

This will delete the text which is on the base line. Press the CLR/HOME 
key to clear the command. 

3.3.1.3 Copy a Block of Text (Q 

This command enables you to duplicate a block of text, inserting it where 
required. You must be in Scan/Edit Mode (S) to use this command. (See 
Section 3.4.1.5.) To copy a block of text type: 

C screen displays C on line two 

Position the text, using the cursor control keys, so that the top line of the 
text to be copied is on the base line. 

Press RETURN screen displays C line no; 

Position the text, using the cursor control keys, so that the bottom line of 
the text to be copied is on the base line. 

Press RETURN screen displays C line no;Iine no; 

Position the text, using the cursor control keys, at the line to which you 
want to copy the text (note the copy will be inserted below the line on the 
base line). 

Press RETURN screen displays C line no;line no;line no 

The block of text will then be duplicated. 



3-14 



THE OPERATING SECTION 

NOTE 
DO NOT enter the line numbers. Positioning the 
line on the base line and pressing RETURN 
automatically does this. The first line number must 
be less than the second line number and the third 
line number must not fall within the block of text 
being duplicated. 

For example, if you wish to copy a block starting at line 10 and ending at 
line 40, you CANNOT insert it after line 15 as this falls within the block of 
text. Condition Code 3 will appear in the top right hand corner of the. 
screen if you attempt this. The Condition Code is cleared by pressing the 
CLR/HOME key. 

Example: To copy some text which begins at line 9 and ends at line 20, 
placing it after line 30, type: 

C screen displays C on line two 

Position line 9 on the base line using the cursor control keys 

Press RETURN screen displays C 009; 

Position line 20 on the base line using the cursor control keys 

Press RETURN screen displays C 009;020; 

Position to line 30 using the cursor control keys 

Press RETURN screen displays C 009;020;030 

The text between and including lines 9 and 20 will appear after line 30 as 
well as in its original position. 

A block may be repeated any number of times by positioning the cursor to 
the line after which you wish to copy the text and pressing the RETURN 
key again. 

Press the CLR/HOME key to end the command. 



3-15 



VICWR1TER USER GUIDE 



3.3.1.4 Move a Block of Text (M) 

This command is similar to Copy (see Section 3.3.1.3) but in this case the 
original block of text is deleted, i.e. M simply moves a block of text from 
one place to another. 

To MOVE a block of text type: 

M screen displays M on line two 

Position the text, using the cursor control keys, so that the top line of the 
text to be moved is on the base line. 

Press RETURN screen displays M line no; 

Position the text, using the cursor control keys, so that the bottom line of 
text to be moved is on the base line 

Press RETURN screen displays M line no;line no; 

Position the text at the line to which you want to move the block. (Note 
that the block will be inserted below the text on the base line.) 

Press RETURN screen displays M line no;line no;line no 

This will move the text and delete the original. 

NOTE 
DO NOT enter the line numbers. Positioning the 
text and pressing RETURN automatically does 
this. The first line number must be less than the 
second line number and the third line number must 
not fall within the block of text being duplicated. 
Condition Code 3 is displayed in the top right hand 
corner of the screen if an illegal copy command is 
attempted. To clear this press the CLR/HOME 
key. 



3-16 



THE OPERATING SECTION 

Example: To move a block of text which starts at line 30 and ends at line 
35, repositioning it after line 9, type: 

M screen displays M on line two 

Position to line 30 using the cursor keys 

Press RETURN screen displays M 030; 

Position to line 35 using the cursor keys 

Press RETURN screen displays M 030;035; 

Position to line 9 using the cursor keys 

Press RETURN screen displays M 030;035;009 

The text between and including lines 30 and 35 will be moved to the 
position beginning after 9. Lines 30 to 35 will be deleted. Press the 
CLR/HOME key to end the command. 

3.3.1.5 Move a Line of Text 

To move a single line type M and then position on the line you wish to 
move and press RETURN twice. Then position to the new location and 
press RETURN. This will move the line, deleting it at its original location. 

Press the CLR/HOME key to end the command. 

3.3.1.6 View Memory Space (B) 

Typing B allows you to see how much memory is unused, expressed in 
bytes. If the amount is low (i.e. below 10 bytes) you should save the page 
on diskette or cassette or print it out. This will ensure that you do not run 
out of space for the final lines of the text. Any text typed after memory is 
full will not be stored in the Edit Buffer. Once you have saved the text you 
can clear the Edit Buffer (see Section 3.4.1.4) and type the remaining text 
on a new page. 



3-17 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



3.3.1.7 Enter Keyboard Mode (K) 

By pressing the K key you can pass control to the Keyboard Mode so that 
the text can be typed into the Edit Buffer from the keyboard thus allowing 
you to create or amend text. A K will appear on the second line of the 
screen. See Section 3.2.2 for the commands available in Keyboard Mode. 

3.3.1.8 Exit to Primary Mode (X) 

By pressing the X key you leave the Scan/Edit Mode (S) and return to 
Primary Mode (P). (See Section 3.4.) This will not affect the contents of 
the Edit Buffer. 

3.3.2 OTHER AVAILABLE COMMANDS 

Section 3.3 described how to define the width of a page i.e. to specify the 
maximum number of characters each line could contain. The instructions 
that follow will enable you to increase or decrease the width, if you decide 
to change this value after text has been entered. 

3.3.2.1 Increasing the Width of the Page 

To increase the width of the page after text has been typed in, follow the 
procedure below. Each paragraph you wish to alter should be done 
separately, otherwise the first sentence of a new paragraph will be placed 
directly after the last sentence of the preceding paragraph. 

1 . Press the CLR/HOME key to return to Scan/Edit Mode unless 
you are in this mode already. 

2. Press X to enter Primary Mode. 

3. Re-enter Scan/Edit Mode (see Section 3.3) specifying the new page 
width. 

4. Press K to enter Keyboard Mode. 

5. Set the tab (see Section 3.2.2.2) to the position of the leftmost 
character of the text to be altered. 



3-18 



THE OPERATING SECTION 



6. Position the up-arrow at the first column position, i.e. the extreme 
left margin of the page on the last line of the text to be altered. 

7. Select the Insert Sub-mode (I) by pressing the CTRL key. 

8. Press the INST/DEL key and then press the SHIFTed vertical 
cursor key. 

9. Repeat step (8) for each line, up to the first line to be altered. 

When you view the page, you will see that the text has expanded to fill the 
new longer lines. To change subsequent paragraphs, using the same page 
width, carry out steps (5) to (9). 

3.3.2.2 Decreasing the Width of the Page 

To decrease the width of the page after text has been typed in, follow the 
procedure below. Each paragraph you wish to alter should be done 
separately, otherwise the first sentence of a new paragraph will be placed 
directly after the last sentence of the preceding paragraph. 

1. Set the tab (see Section 3.2.2.2) so that it aligns with the leftmost 
character of the text to be altered. 

2. Position the cursor at the first line of the text to be altered. 

3. Select the Insert Sub-mode (I) by pressing the CTRL key. Before 
proceeding further, work out how far across the page you will need 
to push the lines to achieve the smaller page width required. For 
example, if you specified a page width of 50 originally and you now 
find you need a page 30 characters wide, you must move each line 
across 20 places using the space bar. Similarly if your page was 80 
characters wide and you want to reduce it to 40 you must move 
each line across 40 characters using the space bar. The numbers 
below the blue line at the bottom of the screen may help you. 

4. Use the SPACE bar to push the text as far to the right as is 
required to give you the new page width. 

5. Press RETURN and repeat step (4) for each line. 



3-19 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



6. Select Overwrite Sub-mode (O) by pressing the CTRL key. 

7. Reposition the up-arrow at the first character of the first line you 
wish to alter. Using the INST/DEL key move the characters to the 
extreme left margin (unless you require the line indented as for 
example at the beginning of a paragraph). Move to the first 
character of the next line by using the cursor keys and repeat step 
(7) for each subsequent line. 

8. Return to Primary Mode (P) by pressing the CLR/HOME key and 
then pressing X. Re-enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) (see Section 3.3 ) 
specifying the new shorter line length . 

When you view the text, you will find that the page width has decreased. 



3.4 PRIMARY MODE (P) 

Commands typed in this mode are displayed on the second line of the 
screen. After the required key is pressed, the parameter (if applicable) is 
entered and the RETURN key is pressed to initiate the command. Before 
the RETURN key has been pressed, the INST/DEL key can be used to 
erase an incorrect parameter so that it can be corrected. The command can 
be cleared by pressing the CLR/HOME key. 

If an illegal parameter is entered, Condition Code 3 (see Appendix B) is 
displayed at the top right hand corner of the screen. When the code 
appears it is necessary to clear the command by pressing the CLR/HOME 
key and then re-entering it. 

This mode is entered when the program is first loaded, or from the 
Scan/Edit Mode (S) when the X key is pressed. 



3-20 



THE OPERATING SECTION 



3.4.1 COMMANDS AVAILABLE IN PRIMARY MODE 

Output text to diskette or cassette 

1 Input text from diskette or cassette 
P Print text 

C Cancel contents of Edit Buffer 

S Enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) 

E End program 

3.4.1.1 Output Text to Diskette or Cassette (O) 

Format: O device no; filename 

This command saves text that is in the Edit Buffer, storing it on diskette or 
cassette. The device number can be either: 

a) 1 (indicating output to cassette) 

b) 8 (indicating output to diskette) 

The filename can be up to 11 characters long and should be unique to the 
diskette or cassette. For example to save some text called '1 LETTER' on 
cassette: 

Press O the screen shows O 

Press 1 and RETURN the screen shows O 1; 

Type 1LETTER 

Press RETURN the screen shows O 1;1LETTER 

Your VIC will then ask: 

PRESS RECORD AND PLAY ON TAPE 

If at this point you decide that you don't want to save the letter, you must 
press the RUN/STOP key (Condition Code 4 will then appear) and then 
the CLR/HOME key. If you press the REC and PLA Y buttons on the 
cassette unit, your VIC displays: 

OK 

SAVING 1LETTER 



3-21 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



This may take several minutes, depending on the amount of text to be 
saved. 

NOTE 
If you attempt to save text on diskette using a 
filename you have already used once, Condition 
Code 4 will appear almost immediately and the red 
light on the front of the drive unit will be flashing 
but YOUR TEXT WILL NOT BE SAVED. 
Therefore, beware if saving appears to be very 
quick. 

If this does occur remove the diskette from the drive unit, turn the disk 
drive off using the switch on the right at the back and then turn it on 
again. Insert the diskette into the drive unit. Press the CLR/HOME key 
and re-enter the command using a different file name. 

When saving has finished, Condition Code 4 (see Appendix B) will appear 
at the top right hand corner of the screen. This indicates that the save was 
successful. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. 

If a Condition Code other than 4 is displayed, indicating that the save was 
NOT successful, clear the code by pressing the CLR/HOME key and try 
to save the text again. 

Be careful to keep a record of your filenames for future reference. You 
should always make two copies of any text just in case one copy becomes 
damaged or lost. If you are saving on diskette make sure that the diskette 
is formatted first. See Section 3.5.1 for instructions on diskette 
formatting. 



3-22 



THE OPERATING SECTION 

3.4.1.2 Input Text from Diskette or Cassette (I) 

Format: I device no;filename 

This command loads a text file from diskette or cassette into the Edit 
Buffer. Existing text stored in the Edit Buffer will be overwritten. 

The device number can either be: 

a) 1 (indicating input from cassette) 

b) 8 (indicating input from diskette) 

For example to load some text called '1LETTER' from diskette: 

Press / the screen shows I 

Press 8 RETURN the screen shows I 8; 

Type 1LETTER 

Press RETURN the screen shows I 8; 1 LETTER 

VIC displays: 

SEARCHING FOR 1LETTER 
LOADING 

If the operation is successful Condition Code 4 will be displayed at the top 
right hand corner of the screen. If any other Condition Code appears, 
refer to Appendix B for the meaning of the code and the action to be 
taken. Press the CLR/HOME key to clear the Condition Code. 

Note that if the following was entered: 

I 8;1* 

the first file on the diskette whose name began with T would be 
loaded. I 8; 1 LET* would load the first file beginning with ' 1 LET' and so 
on. For this reason it is advantageous to begin each of your text files on 
diskette with a different number. For example: 1 LETTER, 2LETTER, 
3LETTER and so on. The name of the required file can be loaded by just 
entering the first character. For example to load 3LETTER type: 

I 8;3* 

3-23 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 

3.4.1.3 Print Text 

Format: P margin width 

This command enables you to print out the current text in the Edit Buffer. 
The margin width required plus the longest line width in the Edit Buffer 
must not exceed 80 characters. For example, if you specify your page 
width (see Section 3.4.1.5) as 70 characters and your margin as 15 
characters, the total is greater than 80 characters and Condition Code 3 
will be displayed (see Appendix B). To clear this, press the CLR/HOME 
key and re-enter the command with a margin which gives a total of less 
than 80 characters, for example 10. If no margin is specified, i.e. you type 
P and then press the RETURN key twice, the printer will print your text, 
starting at column one of the paper. 

To print, first ensure the red POWER light on the printer is on. To print 
with a margin of 10: 

Press P screen shows P 
Enter 10 screen shows P 10 
Press RETURN twice 

Printing commences with each line indented by 10 characters. 

To STOP printing press the RUN/STOP key. To recommence printing 
press the RETURN key. If your text is separated by lines containing a # in 
column one (see Section 3.2.2.8) the printer stops when it encounters this 
character. This enables you to align the paper at the top of a new page if 
you wish. To continue with the next block of text press RETURN again. 
To terminate the command press the CLR/HOME key. 

3.4.1.4 Clear the Edit Buffer 

Format: SHIFT C 

WARNING 
THIS COMMAND SHOULD BE USED WITH 
EXTREME CAUTION. IT CLEARS THE 
CONTENTS OF THE EDIT BUFFER, i.e. 
DESTROYS WHAT IS THERE. STORE THE 
CONTENTS FIRST. (SEE SECTION 3.4.1.1.) 

3-24 



THE OPERATING SECTION 

Clear allows you to start a new page of text. Type a SHIFTed C and press 
the RETURN key to initiate the command. 

3.4.1.5 Enter Scan/Edit Mode (S) 

Format: S page width (in range 20 to 80) 

This command passes control to the Scan/Edit commands (see Section 
3.3) so that text may be created or manipulated. 

3.4.1.6 End the Program 

Format: SHIFT E 

WARNING 
THIS COMMAND SHOULD BE USED WITH 
EXTREME CAUTION. IT TERMINATES THE 
PROGRAM AND CLEARS IT FROM THE 
MEMORY. ANY TEXT HELD IN THE EDIT 
BUFFER WDLL BE LOST. 

Before using this command save any text that may be required again (see 
Section 3.4.1.1). When End is executed VIC will return you to the screen 
as at power up. 



3.5 DISKETTE HANDLING COMMANDS 

The following two sections contain instructions for formatting your 
diskettes and keeping diskettes up-to-date by deleting (scratching) files 
you no longer need. 

3.5.1 DISKETTE FORMATTING 

Whenever a new diskette is to be used it must first be formatted. This 
prepares the diskette so that it is ready to accept information. 

Format: OPEN15,8,15:PRINT#15,"N0:name,id":CLOSE15 



3-25 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



The 'name' can be up to 16 characters long. For example DISK1, 
MEMOS, REPORTS. 

The 'id' is a 2 character identifier which should be unique for each new 
diskette you use. You could use identifiers in ascending order, for exam- 
ple, 01, 02 up to 99. Letters can also be used, for example, AA, AB, Al, 
2X etc. 

To format a diskette with the name EXAMPLE and the identifier 01 type: 

OPEN15,8,15:PRINT#15,"N0:EXAMPLE,01" 
and press the RETURN key. 

The red light at the front of the drive unit will come on and the drive unit 
will whir for several seconds. VIC will display the READY message. 

If the red light does not come on check that the power is switched on (the 
green light at the front of the drive unit will be on) and that the disk drive 
is attached to the back of the VIC 20. Press the RUN/STOP key and re- 
type the command shown above. 

After the READY message has appeared type: 

CLOSE 15 and press the RETURN key. 

The red light on the drive unit will come on for about 30 seconds after 
which VIC will display the READY message. Your diskette is now ready to 
receive text created by VICWRITER. 

IMPORTANT 
Formatting can only be done outside the 
VICWRITER program. Make sure you have a for- 
matted diskette ready whenever you use 
VICWRITER because if you realise you need a 
diskette when you are using VICWRITER, exiting 
the program will cause you to lose the current page 
of text you have in memory. 



3-26 



THE OPERATING SECTION 



3.5.2 SCRATCHING DISK FILES 

Scratching simply means removing a file from the diskette. This allows you 
to delete any pages that you no longer require. 

Format: OPEN15,8,15: PRINT #15,"S0:filename":CLOSE15 

The filename must correspond to a file of text on the diskette. For 
example to delete a file called LETTER 15 type: 

OPEN15,8 > 15:PRINT#15,"S0:LETTER15" and press the RETURN 
key. 

The red light at the front of the drive unit will come on. If the red light 
does not come on check that the drive unit is switched on (the green light 
should be on) and that it is connected to the back of your VIC 20. Press 
the RUN/STOP key and then re-type the command. 

When scratching has finished VIC will display the READY message. Now 
type: 

CLOSE15 and press RETURN 

IMPORTANT 
Scratching files can only be done outside the 
VICWRITER program. 



3-27 



APPENDICES 






KEYBOARD NOTES 

APPENDIX A 
KEYBOARD NOTES 

CONTROLLING THE CURSOR 

The "cursor" is the flashing block below the READY which appears on 
the screen when you turn on the computer. The position of the cursor 
determines where the characters will appear on the screen when you type 
them. There are two keys on the keyboard of your VIC computer which 
control the principal movement of the cursor on the screen. These are the 
keys marked CRSR, one marked with horizontal (left and right) arrows 
and one with vertical (up and down) arrows. 

Depressing the key with the horizontal arrow will move the cursor one 
space to the right. Pressing this key whilst holding down the SHIFT key 
will move the cursor back to the left. Similarly, the vertical CRSR key will 
move the cursor down and with the SHIFT key depressed will move it up. 
If you want the cursor to return directly to the upper left corner of the 
screen which is called the HOME position, simply press the key marked 
CLR/HOME. Practice moving the cursor around the screen using these 
keys. 

NOTE 
Within VICWRITER the cursor appears as an up- 
arrow (t) on the base line in Keyboard Mode and 
Scan/Edit Mode. Note that the page moves rather 
than the cursor, i.e. if you press the horizontal 
cursor key the page will move to the left. 



A-l 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



CORRECTING TYPING MISTAKES 

Before starting to use your VIC program, you should know how to correct 
typing errors so that you need not worry if you press the wrong key from 
time to time. Correcting errors is simple on the VIC 20 computer. Try it. 

Type the following anywhere on the screen: 

Where errorrs are conserned the ky to scksess is try. 

To correct "errorrs", place the cursor over the "s". Now press the 
INST/DEL key once. You will now have: 

errors 

The DELETE function takes the letter under the cursor and "pulls" it, 
along with all the following text, one position to the left. This action 
covers whatever was originally in the position to the left of the cursor. 

Next place the cursor over the "s" in "conserned" and press the c key. 
Notice how the computer simply overwrites whatever is under the cursor. 

Now place the cursor over the "y" in "ky". Hold down the SHIFT key 
and press the INST/DEL key once. Notice how the INSERT function 
"pushes" all of the text to the right of the cursor one position, leaving a 
blank space under the cursor where you can now type the missing "e". 

Try out these techniques yourself by correcting "scksess". 

Before proceeding with any other activity on the screen press RETURN. 
The computer will display the message: 

?syntax error 
ready 

You may now load VICWRITER as explained in Section 2.3.2. 



A-2 



CONDITION CODES 

APPENDIX B 

CONDITION CODES 

The Condition Codes are displayed in the top right hand corner of the 
screen in the form > > 3. All except Code 4 are used to highlight error 
conditions. If a Condition Code is displayed, check its meaning and then 
clear the code by pressing the CLR/HOME key. This will then allow you 
to enter the command again if an error occurred or enter another 
command if the last one was successful. 

CODE : 1 

MEANING 

The space allocated to the Edit Buffer has been exceeded. 

ACTION 

Reset with the CLR/HOME key. To continue, save text entered so far and 

clear the Edit Buffer (see Section 3.4.1.4). Then type in the rest of the text 

on a new page. 

CODE : 3 

MEANING 

The last parameter entered was illegal. 

ACTION 

Reset with the CLR/HOME key. Check the permissable parameter values 

under the appropriate command description in the Operating Section. 

CODE : 4 

MEANING 

This is not an error situation. The last command invoked has ended 

successfully. 

ACTION 

Reset with the CLR/HOME key. 



B-l 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



CODE : 5 

MEANING 

An error occurred whilst a file was being loaded. 

ACTION 

Reset with the CLR/HOME key. If you are using a diskette, make sure 

that the diskette has been formatted and that the disk drive unit is 

attached to the VIC. Make sure that you specify the correct file name. If 

you are using cassette, rewind the cassette and try loading again. 

CODE : 6 

MEANING 

An attempt was made to load an invalid file. 

ACTION 

Reset with the CLR/HOME key. Ensure that the correct file name is 

specified. 



B-2 



GLOSSARY 



GLOSSARY 



BASE LINE 

The line above the dark blue line at the bottom of the screen. All 

characters that are typed in Keyboard Mode will appear here. 

CHARACTER 

Each individual symbol which appears on the screen, whether it is a letter, 
a number, punctuation mark, or space, i.e. everything that is created by 
pressing a key. 

CONDITION CODE 

A number used to indicate the status of an operation, mainly used to 

indicate error situations. 

CURSOR 

The flashing square which appears on the screen when VIC is switched on. 
Any character typed will appear in the position indicated by the cursor. In 
VICWRITER the cursor is represented by the up-arrow (1) on the blue 
line near the bottom of the screen. 

DEVICE NUMBER 

A number used to distinguish input or output to cassette from input or 
output to diskette. A 1 denotes input/output to cassette, an 8 denotes 
input/output to diskette. 

EDIT BUFFER 

The area of VIC's memory used to store any text created using 

VICWRITER, or loaded into the program from diskette or cassette. 

FILE 

The space allocated on the diskette or casstte for storing your page of text. 

FORMATTING 

Before using any new diskette it must be prepared or formatted. Once 

formatted it can be used to save your text files. 

FUNCTION KEY 

One of 4 tan keys situated on the right side of the keyboard. VICWRITER 

uses F5 and F7 for fast scanning vertically and horizontally respectively. 



G-i 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



INSERT SUB-MODE (I) 

A Sub-mode (I) which is used for inserting characters at the cursor 
position. All text to the right of the cursor position is moved to the right to 
make space for the inserted character. 

KEYBOARD MODE (O) 

This mode (O) allows the user to type text into the Edit Buffer from the 
keyboard. It is entered from the Scan/Edit Mode (S). 

MODE 

Displayed on the top line of the screen as md = P. Indicates commands 

available at that level. The three modes are P, S and K. 

OVERWRITE SUB-MODE (O) 

In this Sub-mode (O) typing over text will replace the characters above the 

up-arrow with whatever is being entered from the keyboard. 

PARAMETER 

A variable specified by the user to produce text in the way required. For 
example, the margin required for printing. 

PRIMARY MODE (P) 

The highest level in the program. This mode is displayed when you first 
enter the program. Commands entered in this mode are displayed on line 2 
of the screen. After the required key is pressed, the parameter (if any) is 
entered and the RETURN key pressed to initiate the command. 

SCAN/EDIT MODE (S) 

This mode is entered from Primary Mode (P). It allows the user to display 

and modify text in the Edit Buffer. 

SCRATCHING 

Deleting a file containing a page of text on diskette. 

SUB-MODE 

The lowest level mode available, part of the Keyboard Mode. Overwrite 
and Insert are Sub-modes and are obtained by pressing the CTRL key. I or 
O (Insert or Overwrite) appears on the top line of the screen. 

TEXT 

Anything which you type onto a page in Keyboard Mode is text. All text is 

stored in the Edit Buffer. 

G-2 



INDEX 

INDEX 

Page 

Alignment of text 

to the left 3-11 

to the right 3-8 

Backing up information 1-7 

B Command 3-17 

Cancelling Commands 3-11 ,3-20 

Cassette 

care of 1-6 

loading from 1-10,2-4,2-16,3-23 

Clearing 

the Edit Buffer 2-15,3-24 

line to right of cursor 3-8 

Condition Codes B-l 

Copy command 2-12,3-14 

Creating text 2-6,3-5 

Cursor control keys 2-7 

Decreasing page width 3-19 

Deleting 

characters 3-8 

lines 2-18,3-12 

Diskette 

care of 1-5 

formatting 2-2,3-25 

loading from 1-11,2-5,2-17,3-23 

Edit Buffer 

clearing 2-15,3-24 

use of 2-15,3-5 

Editing text 2-9,3-11 

End of program command 2-18,3-25 

End of text marker 2-13,3-11 

Exit to Primary Mode 2-13,3-18 

Exit to Scan/Edit Mode 2-13,3-11 



i-i 



VICWRITER USER GUIDE 



Filenames 3-21 ,3-22 

Formatting a diskette. 2-2,3-25 

Function keys i 2-8 

Hardware 

connecting 1-7 

requirements 1-3 

turning on 1-8 

Increasing page width 3-18 

Inserting 

characters 2-10,3-7 

lines 2-11,3-8 

Insert Sub-mode 2-10,3-7 

Keyboard Mode 2-7,3-1,3-5 

Left alignment of text 3-11 

Loading 

VICWRITER 1-10,2-4 

text from cassette 2-16,3-23 

text from diskette 2-17,3-23 

Margin setting 2-6,2-13,3-12,3-24,3-25 

Memory expansion cartridge 1-4,2-1 

Mode 

Keyboard (K) 2-7,3-1,3-5 

Primary (P) 2-5,3-4,3-20 

Scan/Edit (S) 2-6,3-3,3-11 

Moving blocks of text 3-16 

Overwrite Sub-mode 2-7,2-10,3-1 

Page width,setting 2-6,3-12,3-25 

Primary Mode 2-5,3-4,3-20 

Printing text 2-13,3-24 

Question mark 3-6 



1-2 



INDEX 



Rapid page scanning 2-8 

Saving text 

on cassette 2-14,3-21 

on diskette 2-15,3-21 

Scan/Edit Mode 2-6,3-3,3-11 

Scratching diskette files 3-27 

Shift text 

to the left 3-11 

to the right -3-8 

Tab position 2-11,3-8 

Turning on hardware 1-8 



1-3 



VICWRITER 



VICWRITER is a word-processing program which easily enables you to 
create, store, and modify text on your VIC 20 colour computer. VICWRITER has 
many uses both at home and in business; some typical applications include: 

Personal Letters 

Business Letters 

Reports 

Memoranda 

Mailing list labels 

By using VICWRITER you can relieve the boredom of typing identical texttime 
and time again, whilst retaining the essential features of a typewriter. As you type 
the characters appear on a line near the bottom of the VIC screen. When the screen 
width is full, the line moves to the left, just as the paper does in a manual typewriter. 
You can specify the width of margin you require foryour page by using one single 
command, allowing a page width of as little as 20 characters per line or as many 
as 80. 

VICWRITER also allows you to check that you are not running short of memory 
^.Qcic^cice to store your text so that, if need be, you can save it before the space runs 
out. Text can be stored on cassette tape or on diskette so that you can recall it later 
and make amendments, or print it out using the VIC Printer. 

This package also includes a comprehensive guide to using VICWRITER, 
which contains a number of useful applications both at home and in business. Two 
copies of the program are included, providing a back-up if required. 

NOTE: VICWRITER requires the use of a VIC 1 540 Single Drive Floppy Disk 
Unit for the diskette-based package or a VIC 1 530 Cassette Unit for the cassette- 
ccss^ cackcge. Both versions require the use of either an 8K or! 6K RAM Memory 
Expansion Cartridge, and a VIC Printer. These items are available from 
Commodore dealers. 




Landsoft Limited 

1 Commodore Electronics Limited 

All rights reserved. No part of this program or accompanying instruction manual 
may be duplicated, copied, transmitted or reproduced in any form by any means 
without the prior written permission of Commodore Home Computer P^sian__ 



::'.".'::cre business machines, inc. 

1200 Wilson Drive, West Chester, PA 19380 

3370 Pharmacy Ave., Agincourt, Ontario, Canada M1W 2K4 

Made in U.S.A.